Hundreds of anarchists from around the world have converged in the Jura mountains of western Switzerland, the birthplace of their movement 140 years ago.
Participants in the International Anarchism Gathering are taking part in talks, debates, and shows.
The gathering opened Wednesday with a call for demonstrations, worker strikes and other acts of defiance — but no violence — to create a classless society of workers.
They say that there is no government solution to Europe's debt crisis.
They say they are offering an alternative to people whose governments are riddled with debt, job losses and social safety net cutbacks.
They are marking the anniversary of the first such congress in Saint-Imier in 1872.
Anarchist International was formed in Switzerland following clashes between anarchist and Marxist members of the International Workingmen's Association.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.